Two of the ears underwent a canal-wall-up mastoidectomy, while eight ears underwent a canal-wall-down mastoidectomy. There are special considerations to take into account when Down syndrome individuals are to receive hearing aids because their ears tend to be smaller. Other options are Down syndrome research paper thesis to test the middle ear function and test for fluid.
The procedure to inset pressure equalization tubes is called a myringotomy operation and refers to the small cut made in the tympanic membrane which may also be done as a separate procedure. National Library of Medicine, 18 Nov. Recruitment refers to the perception that the level of sound drastically increases for specific frequencies and becomes too loud too quickly and causes pain.
Schwartz, and Richard M. To be sure of appropriate examination and diagnosis, the canals may require an otolaryngologist to clean the canals before examinations, which should occur every three months to prevent ear infections that may otherwise go undiagnosed and untreated.
Another concern is the actual craniofacial and orofacial anatomy of Down syndrome children which may also lead to chronic ear problems. Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery, Infants are often diagnosed at birth by the occurrence of physical characteristics, but the actual expression of Down Syndrome varies Down syndrome research paper thesis, and the diagnosis may be delayed if too much importance is put on only the typical physical characteristics.
The downside of the tubes is that they may need to be replaced.
When this is coupled with immunodeficiency in the individual, infection may easily occur. Once they reach their teenage years and after, they have a good chance of cochlear degeneration occurring.
For children, it is important that lesions in the tympanic membrane are diagnosed by a pediatrician and that the child is then referred to an otolaryngologist.
Hearing aids are also used with Down syndrome adult individuals who are living with early onset dementia because the loss may significantly affect their cognition skills. The outer ear canal normally cleans itself, moving cerumen away from the tympanic membrane towards the external auditory meatus, but in children with Down syndrome, the canal is abnormally narrow making these processes less efficient and leading to a build up of ear wax.
Adults should have a hearing assessment conducted every five years, ideally with pure tone audiometry testing and an additional word test Snashall, Susan. Consequently, children with Down Syndrome who are diagnosed with a hearing impairment are in danger of having learning impairments subsequent to their hearing loss.
Like glue ear, cerumen impaction is a very common otologic pathology, and it has a high incidence in individuals with Down syndrome. The cholesteatoma may continue to enlarge to the point where it will destroy bone.
If a child experiences chronic Eustachian tube dysfunction, treatment may include pressure equalization tubes which can eliminate the chronic episodes.
The buildup of cerumen is so common that pathologies of the middle ear may go unnoticed unless searched for by otoscope.
Upper Saddle River, NJ: Thus, the treatment of otologic pathologies and hearing loss in Down syndrome is of the greatest concern to giving individuals with Down syndrome the quality of life they deserve. They followed nine pediatric patients that were being surgically treated, and two of the patients had cholesteatoma in both ears bilateralwhich brought the total of ears being treated to The combination of the accumulation of thick cerumen and auditory canal stenosis can quickly lead to a conductive hearing loss.
This may result in a reversible conductive hearing loss. It was also found that distortion product otoacoustic emissions had lower amplitudes in the children diagnosed with Down Syndrome than those found in the control groups.
In respect to their receptive language, children diagnosed with Down Syndrome often have language comprehension that is about the same as their mental age. These are just some of the physical characteristics commonly seen in the chromosomal condition, but the actual presentation of physical characteristics is highly individualized.
The stenotic ear canals can present several practical problems, the canals may become easily clogged, and it may be difficult to correctly diagnose middle ear disease in stenotic ear canals. The tube is held in place by the tension in the tympanic membrane. Another ear, after the same procedure, developed recurrent cholesteatoma which necessitates a change to a canal-wall-down mastoidectomy.
Symptoms of otitis media include ear otalgia, which refers to ear pain, fever, and otorrhea, which refers to discharge of the ear. Though a small study, it supports the general consensus that children with Down Syndrome have a high incidence of persistent conductive hearing loss.
Irrigation of the ear canal may also be effective, but irrigation should never be performed if the tympanic membrane may be perforated as this could lead to acoustic trauma or otitis media. There may also be problems with the Eustachian tube which connects the middle ear space to the nasopharynx.
Sacks, Ben, and Amanda Wood. Note, that this is often different from their chronological age. Also, children with Down syndrome may have hypotonia, also known as low muscle tone, which may cause difficulties in opening and closing the tube.
A study by Hassman E.
The upside to this procedure is that the fluid does not end up in the external auditory canal and have to be cleaned, which is especially helpful in children with Down syndrome with narrow canals.Down Syndrome (DS) is a genetic disorder in which a person has 47 chromosomes instead of the normal In most cases, three copies.
Jun 21, · The NICHD leads the NIH Down Syndrome Working Group, which was created to coordinate and advance NIH research on Down syndrome. Inthe Working Group met with members of the scientific community and national Down syndrome organizations to discuss gaps in knowledge and the needs of the community.
Research paper down syndrome as the main academic writing of smith college thesis database And you want to cut out indecisiveness, you x an appointment to lm research paper down syndrome a follows in which you are proposing a new thing.
Research Paper Down Syndrome Down syndrome is the single most common form of genetically-based mental retardation. The syndrome occurs when the fetal cell development process creates an extra chromosome, resulting in abnormalities in physical and neurological developments.
Download thesis statement on Down Syndrome in our database or order an original thesis paper that will be written by one of our staff writers and. Down Syndrome Thesis: When someone sees a child or an adult with Down syndrome they automatically single them out, every person in this world is different, with a disability or with out, but that doesn’t mean they need to be treated differently.Download